Deep Learning (DL) computational performance is critical for scientists and engineers applying deep learning techniques to many challenges in healthcare, commerce, autonomous driving, and other domains. While they can leverage


Kernel libraries do not support graph-level optimizations

A framework designed for training using GPUs requires integration with a kernel library unique to that vendor’s hardware. For example, after integration, a kernel library can run operations that it is “familar” with optimally; however, the graph itself within any larger NN won’t be optimal.

Figure A: Lack of graph-level optimization makes framework-to-kernel library integration enormously inefficient. The computation graph above represents the computation: “A plus B times C”.

Figure B: Notice that an operation on the constant B (in this case a Broadcast) can be done at compile time. This is an example of constant folding, and it is not available to a device-based kernel library.

Figure C: Finally notice that the constant has value “zero” thus the add is an identity operation and can be eliminated. This is an example of Algebraic simplification, and it is not available to a device-based kernel library.

After the two graph-level optimizations above (Algebraic Simplification and Constant Folding), we now have an optimal graph: A times C. Again, kernel libraries do not support this type of optimization. Although each implementation can be done individually, it will eventually yield an “exploding” number of kernels the larger and more complex an NN becomes. For some insight on why this happens, see the next section.

Too Many Kernels to write

A typical network is constructed using some kind of language-based API, which translates the network or DL model (statically or dynamically) into serialized graphs. Those graphs can then passed through a compilation process (the Graph optimization or compilation step in Figure D below), where various graph-level optimizations, like constant folding or fusion can happen. These processes require unique vendor-provided libraries to communicate with a driver (possibly through OpenCL*, CUDA*, or SYCL*), to compile and execute an implementation (kernel) for a specific Instruction Set Architecture, or ISA.

Illustrated below is a simplified DL stack, showing relative complexity of each component. Note that optimizing for any one on its own usually requires engineering expertise that can be highly specialized to that component, and that the terms have been simplified for illustrative purposes.

A simplified DL stack

Figure D: Components of a DL stack, simplified for illustrative purposes.

There are many deep learning frameworks, each with its own strengths and user bases. A setup that is common to many DL practitioners is shown in the illustration below.

A common implementation

Figure E: A commonly-implemented stack uses TensorFlow* as the frontend. The input is either optimized via Grappler, or executed directly via TensorFlow. In either case, when targeting an Nvidia* GPU, cuDNN is called to select an optimal kernel for the operation; cuDNN then relies on CUDA* or direct access to run code on the target; in this toy example, the target is a V100.

A natural result of this approach is that the framework-level integration of kernel libraries does not scale. Rather, each individual framework must be manually integrated with each hardware-specific kernel library. Each integration is unique to the framework and its set of deep learning operators, its view on memory layout, its feature set, etc. Each of these connections, then, represents significant work for what will ultimately be a brittle setup that is enormously expensive to maintain.

Scalability matters

Figure F: The number of kernels necessary to achieve optimal performance is bounded by the product of the number of chip designs one wishes to support, the number of data types supported, the number of operations, and the cardinality of each parameter for each operation.

In the past, this upper bound was quite limited; however, since the industry is shifting toward a more diverse future in terms of deep learning hardware, the number of distinct kernels is exploding and will continue to explode.

Get the best of both worlds

Integrating a framework on nGraph can be an attractive option for hardware companies trying to design their own deep learning hardware or network architecture. Framework integration is non-trivial amount of work, and nGraph automatically does much of the heavy lifting. Furthermore, PlaidML can provide a wide range of hardware coverage and optimization automatically. Any hardware that supports LLVM, OpenCL, OpenGL, CUDA or Metal can be supported automatically with PlaidML and nGraph.

Overview of various graph and tensor compilers.

Figure G: Overview of various graph and tensor compilers.

A closer look at tensor compilers.

Figure H: A closer look at tensor compilers.

Other notable efforts

A few other notable efforts in compiler projects include: